In Scotland, smoking and alcohol are two of the most important preventable causes of ill-health and premature death, with one in every five deaths attributable to tobacco, and one in twenty to alcohol. The neighbourhood availability of tobacco and alcohol products has been implicated in promoting smoking and drinking behaviours.
In CRESH we have been investigating these links between tobacco and alcohol environments and health. Our findings have affirmed that greater neighbourhood availability of alcohol and tobacco in Scotland is related to behaviours, harms and health inequalities (Clemens et al 2020; Pearce et al 2016; Richardson et al 2015, Shortt et al 2016, 2017, 2018).
Building on our research, and through: (1) the SPECTRUM Consortium -- a multi-university, multi-agency research consortium focused on the commercial determinants of health and health inequalities funded by the UK Prevention Research Partnership; and (2) an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded study entitled ‘Change in alcohol and tobacco availability, population health and the lived experience’, we have developed this open access web map.
Through the use of digital maps, this web resource allows you to visualise the availability of alcohol and tobacco in Scotland. Availability can be explored at the neighbourhood level using the geography of Scottish Government Data Zones. Availability can also be visualised across a range of 14-other geographies, such as Local Authorities. In addition, availability can be seen across time, with information on availability provided for the following years: 2012, 2016, and 2020. There is also the option to consider different forms of alcohol availability, notably whether alcohol availability relates to off-trade retailers (where alcohol is sold for consumption off-site, for example at a convenience store), or on-trade (where alcohol may be purchased for consumption on-site, for example at a restaurant).
To supplement the information on alcohol and tobacco availability, the web map enables you to visually explore a range of other neighbourhood level information, for example an area’s level of ‘deprivation’. These supplementary data are official Scottish Government small area statistics referenced in the 2020 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation.
As not to duplicate data presented elsewhere, for each Data zone we provide a link to further information from statistics.gov.uk. For example, web searching for the "Canongate, Southside and Dumbiedykes-05" Data zone will redirect here. This webpage gives information on geography, housing, health, deprivation and urban/rural classification.
Clemens T, Dibben C, Pearce J & Shortt NK (2020). Neighbourhood tobacco supply and individual maternal smoking during pregnancy: A fixed-effects longitudinal analysis using routine data. Tobacco Control, 29(1), 7-14. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054422
Pearce, J, Rind E, Shortt NK, Tisch C, & Mitchell R (2016). Tobacco retail environments and social inequalities in individual-level smoking and cessation among Scottish adults. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 18(2), 138-146. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv089
Richardson EA, Hill S E, Mitchell R, Pearce J & Shortt NK (2015). Is local alcohol outlet density related toalcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities? Health and Place, 33, 172-180.
Shortt NK, Tisch C, Pearce J, Richardson EA & Mitchell R (2016). The density of tobacco retailers in home and school environments and relationship with adolescent smoking behaviours in Scotland. Tobacco Control, 25(1), 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051473
Shortt NK, Rhynas S J & Holloway A (2017). Place and recovery from alcohol dependence: A journey through photovoice. Health & Place, 47, 147-155. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.08.008
Shortt NK, Rind E, Pearce J, Mitchell R & Curtis S (2018). Alcohol risk environments, vulnerability and social inequalities in alcohol consumption [Cross sectional]. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 108(5), 1210-1227. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/24694452.2018.1431105